Emily Hastings, Tavis Potts, Marine litter: Progress in developing an integrated policy approach in Scotland, Marine Policy, Volume 42, November 2013, Pages 49-55, ISSN 0308-597X, 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.01.024.
Abstract: Marine litter is a problem that undermines the Scottish Government’s vision for ‘clean, healthy, safe, productive, biologically diverse marine and coastal environments, managed to meet the long term needs of nature and people’. The impacts of marine litter extend to environmental, social and economic spheres but currently the understanding of effects is limited. It is clear however, that marine litter can impact on a range of resources and ultimately threaten policy goals such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its focus on delivering a clean and healthy marine environment. The Scottish Government has initiated a process to advance a marine litter strategy as part of its response to the MSFD. This paper draws upon the literature and practice of environmental policy integration to identify opportunities and obstacles in the emerging policy response in Scotland. Ultimately, any marine litter strategy for Scotland should be innovative and forward looking, coordinating amongst the variety of sectors, users and instruments available—‘joining the dots’ to tackle the considerable challenges in educating the public and contributing to a zero waste Scotland.
Keywords: Marine litter; Marine policy; Policy integration; Scotland
Chung-Ling Chen, Ta-Kang Liu, Fill the gap: Developing management strategies to control garbage pollution from fishing vessels, Marine Policy, Volume 40, July 2013, Pages 34-40, ISSN 0308-597X, 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.01.002.
Abstract: It is widely documented that marine debris is detrimental to the marine ecological environment. While there are various sources of marine debris, that generated by ships constitutes a significant proportion. Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 is to regulate the discharge of garbage from ships; in particular, it prohibits all kinds of plastics from being discharged into ocean. However, most fishing vessels are virtually exempt from such regulations due to their low gross tonnage, below 400 t. Given the great number of fishing vessels operating around the world, it can be argued that fishing vessels are a common source of marine debris. This paper aims to propose measures that will fill the gap in international regulations in addressing the problem of vessel-source garbage pollution. An understanding of what constitutes the underlying causes leading to fishers’ decision on debris disposal is needed when designing effective measures to reduce garbage pollution from ships. Thus, this paper seeks to identify factors that have the potential to influence fishers’ disposal behavior and investigate the association between factors and fishers’ intention of bringing garbage back to port. Major factors of a well-developed recycling practice, adequate collection facilities placed at port, fishers’ positive views towards marine environments and provision of rewards are identified, which have significant implications for management strategies. Finally, the papers offers suggestions regarding future efforts focusing on debris reduction strategies to further address the problem of garbage pollution from fishing vessels.
Keywords: Garbage pollution; Marine debris; Fishing vessels; MARPOL 73/78
Dong-Oh Cho, Removing derelict fishing gear from the deep seabed of the East Sea, Marine Policy, Volume 35, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 610-614, ISSN 0308-597X, 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.01.022.
Abstract: The East Sea, with an average depth of 1700 m, has long been subject to heavy fishing pressure, resulting in derelict fishing gear. Most derelict fishing gears, such as fishing nets, fishing ropes, and crab pots, sink to the seabed and do not degrade. This gear results in “ghost fishing,” which has adverse impacts on deep benthic habitats. Recently, the Korean government has started to remove derelict fishing gears from the deep seabed of the East Sea by bottom trawling with heavy hooks (50–80 kg) and ropes. A total of 207.8 and 252.2 tons of marine debris in 2009 and 2010, respectively, were removed from the seabed, most of which were derelict fishing gears. Contrary to monitoring surveys and clean-up in shallow waters, removal of marine debris from remote deep habitats is much more difficult and dangerous for removal crews.
Keywords: Derelict fishing gear; Bottom trawling; East Sea; Deep seabed; Hooks and ropes; Fishing grounds
K.L. Storrier, D.J. McGlashan, Development and management of a coastal litter campaign: The voluntary coastal partnership approach, Marine Policy, Volume 30, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 189-196, ISSN 0308-597X, 10.1016/j.marpol.2005.01.002.
Abstract: The Forth Estuary Forum’s Coastal Litter Campaign aimed to develop and implement a community involvement and public awareness-raising programme intended to tackle and monitor the issue of marine litter in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Beach cleans are an excellent public participation exercise, focusing the public’s attention on the issue of marine litter and creating a sense of environmental responsibility. Raising public awareness is the only guaranteed way of reducing marine litter. A combination of education, provision of adequate waste reception facilities and enforcement of legislation is needed to tackle beach litter.
Keywords: Beach litter; Community involvement; Voluntary partnership; Integrated coastal zone management